Its hills are the chief natural feature of Kolhapur. They include
the main range of the Sahyadris running north and south for about a hundred miles, and six large spurs which stretch north-east and east thirty to fifty miles from the Sahyadris, and divide the Kolhapur plateau into six main valleys. In the eastern plain are two minor outlying groups the Raybag and the Katkol hills. The Sahyadris run in an irregular line about 100 miles from north to south. Except at Bavda near the middle of the line, where part of the State runs west into the Konkan, the line of the Sahyadris follows the western border of Kolhapur. Within Kolhapur limits the crest of the Sahyadris varies from 2000 to 3500 and averages about 2500 feet above the sea. The Sahyadris are full of wild and beautiful scenery, the lower slopes and the hollows thickly wooded, and the upper slopes rising in terraces separated by great scarps of rock to bluff even-topped headlands, relieved by an occasional cone-shaped peak or pinnacle. "With a little aid from art many of these hill-tops have been turned into almost impregnable fortresses. Within Kolhapur limits, in or close to the crest of the Sahyadris, are nine of these fortified hill-tops. In the extreme north beyond the Satara border is Prachitgad. About two miles south of Prachitgad on the Kolhapur border is Bahirgad. About eight miles south in a direct line is Mahimatgad. About twelve miles further south in a straight line, but a good deal more following the crest of the hill, is Vadi Machal fort 3348 feet above the sea and about ten miles west of the Kolhapur town of Malkapur. A little to the south of Vadi Machal is the famous fort of Vishalgad or Khelna, about 3350 feet above the sea, strongly fortified with walls part of which are said to date back to A.D. 1000. It is about ten miles west of Malkapur and about forty-five miles north-west of Kolhapur. The next fort of consequence is Bavda about thirty miles
south of Vishalgad in a direct line, and about the middle of the Kolhapur section of the Sahyadris. The hill rises out of the Konkan with sheer lofty scarps. About ten miles further south, close to the north of the Phonda pass, is Shivgad 3240 feet above the sea. About fifteen miles more is Bhairavgad and about twelve miles more, on a point that stretches far to the west, is Rangna or Prasidhagad a favourite fort of Shivaji's. Beyond Rangna point the main crest passes east for about ten miles where are the two notable hills of Manohar and Mansantosh within Savantvadi limits. In the extreme south of the State, the southern shoulder of the Parpoli pass rises to a height of 2778 feet. Within the 100 miles of their Kolhapur course the Sahyadris are crossed by ninety-four passes of which three the AMBA pass in the north, the PHONDA pass about the middle, and the AMBOLI pass in the south are furnished by roads fit for carts and carriages. Of the remaining passes fourteen are fairly easy and are fit for laden cattle, and the rest are little better than rough foot-paths. Beginning from the north on the Satara border is the South TIVRA pass, which, with Prachitgad fort to the right, leads about nine miles down a steep tract,, especially in the last two miles, to the Ratnagiri village of Tivra about eleven miles east of Sangameshvar town in Ratnagiri. About five and a half miles south of the Tivra pass is the KUNDI pass, a difficult road, from Chandel on the top four and a half miles to Kundi at the bottom, which is eight and a half miles north-east of the Ratnagiri town of Devrukh. About eleven miles south of the Kundi pass is the AMBA pass one of the main lines between Kolhapur and the sea. The. head of the pass is about thirty-five miles north-west of Kolhapur and the foot is about the same distance east of Ratnagiri. A road fit for carts and carriages was made between 1871 and 1883, for which £10,520 (Rs.l,05,200) were contributed by the Kolhapur state". About five miles to the south of the Amba pass, on each side of the narrow neck of land which joins Vishalgad fort to the crest of the Sahyadris, are two small foot tracks, DEVDA on the north and PRABHANVALLI on the south. Nine miles south of the Vishalgad passes is the ANASKURA pass about thirty miles north-west of Kolhapur, and separated from it by a difficult hilly country. About twenty miles south-west of the Anaskura pass is the old Ratnagiri port of Rajapur. In 1826 the pass was. described as about three miles long, a good road, paved with large stones in a few places where it was rather steep. About the centre of the pass was a toll-house for collecting dues. The approach on the Konkan side was very bad but with a little labour it might be made practicable for guns. [Clunes' Itinerary, 149,] About five miles south of the Anaskura pass is the KAJIRDA pass, about twenty-five miles west of Kolhapur, from which it is the straightest route to Rajapur in Ratnagiri. In 1826 the road was passable for cattle, but was closed that tolls might be taken in other passes. About ten miles south is the Bavda pass a road for walkers and possible to laden cattle. It is now the chief route from Kolhapur to Rajapur. About eight miles south, close to the Sivgad fort, is the SIVGAD pass a route from Kolhapur
to Malvan. Guns were formerly brought up this pass, but in 1826 it was out of repair. About two miles further is the PHONDA pass, the chief opening between the Deccan and the Ratnagiri port of Malvan. About 1820 a detachment with artillery went down the Phonda pass to Vadi. The road was made practicable for ordnance, but in 1826 was seldom used though a little labour would put it in good repair. [Clunes' Itinerary, 149.] About ten miles south of the Phonda pass, close to the south of Bahiravgad fort, is NARDAVA, a small bullock pass. About five miles further is the GHOTGE pass, described in 1826 as used by laden cattle, a good road except some bad places at the top passing from Kolhapur to Malvan. About four miles to the south-west, in the point which is guarded by Rangna fort, is the RANGNA pass. It was described in 1826 as frequented by laden cattle from Kolhapur to Malvan. The road passed through a gateway along a ridge which on the left fell right down to the Konkan. About two miles east of the Rangna pass is the HANMANT pass. In 1826 it was a cattle road but very bad. About fifteen miles to the south-east is the AMBOLI or PARPOLI pass formerly the main line between Goa and the Deccan. In 1818 Colonel Dowse's force marched through the Amboli pass to invest Redi about ten miles south of Vengurla. The Pioneers of the force in three days made it passable for small guns. In 1826 it was described as about 5¼ miles from Amboli at the top to Parpoli at the foot, a strong descent in no part very steep, but in consequence of zigzags very difficult for heavy ordnance. About 1871 a road fit for carts and carriages was made. In the extreme south of the state about eight miles south of the Amboli pass and one mile north of the Ram pass is the TALKHAT pass. Close beyond the southern boundary is the RAM pass, the great highway between Belgaum and Vengurla, and formerly one of the main openings between Goa and the inland parts. A road thirty feet wide was finished in March 1821, and in 1826 the ascent was easy and passable for every description of wheel carriages. Since 1826 the road has been more than once improved and is now one of the easiest routes across the Sahyadris.
From the confused mass of hills to the east of the Sahyadris six great ranges stretch east and north-east thirty to fifty miles across the Kolhapur plateau. Their bare sides rise 700 to 1000 feet above the plain to flat tops, often with broad tablelands, broken at intervals by peaks and conical knobs, crowned sometimes by forts sometimes by shrines. Of the six ranges the only one that stretches east nearly at right angles to the main crest of the Sahyadris, is the Vishalgad-Panhala range in the north. It leaves the Sahyadris at the great Vishalgad fort (3348 feet) near Malkapur, about forty miles north-west of Kolhapur. From Vishalgad it stretches south-east about twenty-five miles, separating the valley of the Varna in the north from the Panchganga valley on the south, where it is crowned by the two fortified peaks of Panhala and Pavangad about 1000 feet above the plain and about fifteen miles north of Kolhapur. From Pavangad it stretches east about
twenty-five miles more till it breaks into separate hillocks and sinks into the plain near the Krishna. In an offshoot from this range, about three miles east of Pavangad and about 1000 feet Above the plain, is a hill crowned with a temple of Jotiba, and on peaks a few miles further east are temples of Sidhoba, Dhuloba, Alamprabhu, and Ramling. Beyond Ramling, about fifty miles from the Sahyadris, the range gradually sinks into the plain near the Krishna. To the west of Kolhapur the country is very rugged, full of short irregular ranges and spurs, stretching about north-east from the Sahyadris, separated by a number of small streams which drain into the Panchganga. The second main spur, which may be styled the Phonda-Savgaon range, leaves the Sahyadris to the south of the Phonda pass about forty miles south-west of Kolhapur. From this it runs north-east to about five miles south of Kolhapur. It then stretches east, forming the water-parting between the Panchganga on the north and the Dudhganga on the south, and after about twenty miles more, or a total length of about fifty miles, falls into the plain. The third of the leading spurs, the Khanapur-Mudhol range, is the water-parting between the Dudhganga and its feeder the Vedganga. It leaves the Sahyadris near the Nardava pass about ten miles south of Phonda, and after stretching north-east for about thirty miles falls into the plain about eight miles south of Kagal. The fourth of the leading spurs, the Bhudargad-Nipani range or the north Ghatprabha spur, is the largest of the six. It divides the drainage of the district into two systems, a northern which drains east and north-east, and a southern which drains east and south-east. This range of hills leaves the Sahyadris near the two important forts of Manohar and Mansantosh about ten miles north of the Amboli pass. Fromthis it runs north-east, a well-marked line of hills, about thirty miles, to within five miles of Nipani, where it passes out of Kolhapur and runs about twenty miles south-east across the Chikodi sub-division of Belgaum. Beyond Chikodi it runs east about fifty miles and then south twenty-five miles till it is cut off by the valley of the Ghatprabha close to where that river joins the Krishna. [Memoirs Geological Survey of India, XII. 5,] This range is the water-parting between the Vedganga which flows north-east into the Dudhganga and the Hiranyakeshi which flows east into the Ghatprabha. About twenty miles south-west of Nipani on a spur that runs west from the main range is the important fortified hill of Bhudargad, which has old shrines to Kedarling, Bahirav, and Jakhrubai, and fortifications which were repaired by Shivaji in 1677. The fifth spur, which may be called the Samangad range, is the water-parting between the Hiranyakeshi and the Ghatprabha. It leaves the Sahyadris from the high ground (2778 feet) to the south of the Amboli pass, and runs north-east a well-marked line of hills about thirty miles to Samangad a small hill fort, but whose great artificially scarped sides make it one of the strongest places in Kolhapur. In the extreme south the north Malprabha Gandharvagad range, starting from the hills to the north of the Talkhatpass runs into Belgaum where it has the fort of Chandgad,
and again entering Kolhapur a little to the east, rises in the great hill
of Gandharvagad. It is then cut by the valley of the Tamraparni but
rises again, and, stretching across Belgaum, forms the water-parting
between the Ghatprabha and the Malprabha passing east as far as
the Amingad hill in Hungund in the south-east of Bijapur, about 130 miles from the Sahyadris.[Mem. Geol. Surv. of India, XII. 5.] Besides these ranges several isolated hills rise 150 to 300 feet from the plain. Two, Vagjai and Tungjai in Panhala, are 700 feet high and two, Salvan in Bavda and Mahadev in Ichalkaranji, rise 800 feet above the plain.
Except the group of villages in the Konkan which slope west
towards the sea, the drainage of Kolhapur is eastwards into the
Krishna. The Krishna forms the north-eastern boundary of
Kolhapur for about twenty-five miles. It first touches the state close below Sangli, where it receives from the right the waters of the Varna, which forms the northern boundary of Kolhapur. From Sangli the Krishna flows, with a winding south-easterly course, about twenty miles to Kurundvad, where it receives the Panchganga from the right. About nine miles further to the south-east, part of which passes through Belgaum villages, it receives the united waters of the Dudhganga and the Vedganga. Below this it passes about three miles south-east through Belgaum, and then turning east, for about ten miles, forms the north boundary of the isolated Kolhapur division of Raybag. During the thirty-five miles with which it is connected with Kolhapur the Krishna is a noble river, about 1300 feet broad, in a shallow bed between banks of earth. With the exception of a fall of a few yards it flows unbroken from Kurundvad, where it is joined by the Panchganga, for a hundred miles towards Haidarabad. During the hot weather it passes, with a very leisurely flow, through a succession of deep pools and shallow fords. Even then experiments have shown that there would be little difficulty in navigating it with flat-bottomed boats, rigged with mast and sail and drawing twelve inches of water. Along the river banks shrubs called shevri are planted and in floods break the force of the water and allow the silt to gather on the ground. These deposits yield rich cold weather crops. Within Kolhapur limits the Krishna is crossed by one bridge at
Udgaon and by five ferries. Though so large and important a river the Krishna is not strictly a Kolhapur stream. The characteristic rivers of Kolhapur are six in number the Varna, Panchganga, Dudhganga, Vedganga, Hiranyakeshi, and Ghatprabha. These rivers rise in the Sahyadris and flow south-east, east, or north-east fifty to sixty miles across the Kolhapur plateau towards the Krishna. In addition to these streams the outlying district of Torgal in the extreme south-east is crossed by the Malprabha. The leading Kolhapur streams have generally deep banks of an average height of about forty feet, and soft beds varying in breadth from 200 to 600 feet. [Major Graham (Kolhapur, 82) gives Varna 222, Panchganga 577, Vedganga 192.] During the first thirty miles of their course, before they pass out of the mountainous country, the Kolhapur rivers are fed by numerous
streams. Further east in the plain country they receive few additions. Though, especially in the west, their courses are winding, there are no falls and few rapids, and in former times every year between October and January, rafts of many hundreds of beams used to be floated down forty to 100 miles. During the rains the masses of water that are poured down the western hills, the deep and winding channels of the streams, and the very slight fall towards the Krishna combine to cause backwaters which sometimes stretch as far as thirty miles, and overflowing large areas of land cause serious loss to the river-bank villages. The high Bhudargad-Nipani spur that runs north-east across the southern parts of Kolhapur marks the division between four streams the Varna, Panchganga, Dudhganga, and Vedganga which pass east and north-east into the Krishna within Kolhapur limits; and two streams the Hiranyakeshi and Ghatprabha which drain east and south-east and do not fall into the Krishna for more than a hundred miles beyond the eastern border of Kolhapur.
The Varna which takes its rise in the Sahyadris, about thirteen miles
north of Kolhapur limits, forms the northern boundary of Kolhapur for about eighty miles. It flows with a fairly straight south-east course along the northern borders of Malkapur, Panhala, Alta, and Shirol and falls into the Krishna at Haripur about one mile south-west of Sangli. At its meeting with the Krishna it has a breadth of about 220 feet. The sloping banks of the Varna yield good cold-weather crops. Its chief feeders in Malkapur and Panhala are the Kanasa, which, after a twelve-mile course from the village of Udgiri in Malkapur, meets the Varna near Malevadi in Panhala. About twelve miles further east it is joined by the Kadvi which rises in a hill near Amba and, after a winding course of about thirty miles, falls into the Varna near Thergaon in Panhala. The Kadvi is bridged near Malkapur on the new road to the Amba pass. During its course it is joined by five smaller streams, near Karungale by the Potphugi from near the Chandel pass; at Malkapur three miles lower by the Shali after a twelve-mile course from near Gajapur; at Molavde about four miles lower by the Ambardi from near the village of Ambardi; at Charan about six miles lower by the Ambira after a seven-mile course from the foot of the Pishvi hills; and at Satve about eight miles lower by the Kandra after a north-west course of about nine miles from Borivde in Panhala. In the fair season the Varna and its chief feeder the Kadvi are fordable but during the rains boats ply at five places on the Varna and at three on the Kadvi.
The Panchganga is formed from north to south of four streams, the Kasari, the Kumbhi, the Tulsi, and the Bhogavati. The fifth stream is the underground Sarasvati. The Kasari is an important stream. It rises in the Sahyadris near the village of Gajapur in Malkapur and flows east for about fifty miles till it joins the united waters of the Kumbhi and the Tulsi at Padali about three miles west of Kolhapur. During its course of fifty miles the Kasari receives several minor streams of which the chief are the Mangar, the Jambhli, and the Gadavli. The Kumbhi rises near Bavda, flows about fifteen miles north-east, and then, with a winding course,
turnseast and joins the united Tulsi and Bhogavati near Bahireshvar about eight miles south-west of Kolhapur. The Tulsi rises about five miles east of the Kumbhi and after a north-easterly course of about fifteen miles falls into the Bhogavati about eight miles south-west of Kolhapur. The Bhogavati, which is the chief of the four streams, takes its rise in the Sahyadris a few miles south of the Phonda pass, and after a nearly northerly course of about twenty-eight miles, almost parallel to the Phonda road, joins the Tulsi river near the historical village of Bid or Berad. About two miles north-west of Bid the Bhogavati receives the Kumbhi and about eight miles further north they are joined from the left by the Kasari about three miles west of Kolhapur. From Kolhapur the Panchganga, as the river is now called, winds east about thirty miles till it falls into the Krishna at Kurundvad. In the thirty miles of its course, to the east of Kolhapur the Panchganga receives only one considerable stream the Hatkalangda or Kabnur which, rising from the Alta hills and passing Hatkalangda and Korochi joins the Panchganga near Kabnur about fifteen miles below Kolhapur. The waters of all these streams which join to form the Panchganga are much used for growing sugarcane. In October, towards the close of the south-west rains, a series of fair-weather earthen dams are built across the river beds and the water is raised by lifts worked by bullocks. The meeting of the Bhogavati and Kasari has much local sanctity, being like Allahabad known as Prayag or Triveni, and being visited by large numbers of pilgrims during the cold months. Two small streams, the Jayanti or Jiti and the Gomati, join this river near Kolhapur. They do not flow all the year round, but they are held sacred and are mentioned in the local holy books. The Jiti is crossed near Kolhapur by three costly and ornamental bridges. The valley of the Panchganga is reckoned the most fertile in Kolhapur and is famous for its hay. The bed of the river is shallow and its sloping banks yield rich crops during the cold weather. At Kolhapur the Panchganga is crossed by two beautiful bridges one near the Brahmapuri hill on the north side of Kolhapur town on the road leading to the Amba pass, and the other a few miles to the east on the Poona road. The Panchgnaga and its feeders are fordable in the hot season. In the rainy season large and small boats ply at twenty-three fords.
The Dudhganga has its source in the Sahyadris near the
Nardava pass in the Bhudargad sub-division about thirty-five miles south-west of Kolhapur. After a course of about twenty miles to the north-east near Kagal, where it is bridged, it flows east for about six miles, and about a mile before it receives the Vedganga from the south, it enters Belgaum and flows east about fifteen miles till it falls into the Krishna near Kallol. The river bed is shallow and muddy and in the fair weather crops are grown on its earthen banks. In Bhudargad its waters are used for watering sugarcane. Except in the rainy season, the river is at all times fordable. In the rainy season it is crossed by ferry-boats at ton places. Of these two, at Saravde and Chuve in Bhudargad, are first class ferries. The other boats are small managed by one or two ferrymen and carrying not more than ten passengers.
The Vedganga rises a few miles north of Rangna, and after a course of about thirty-eight miles to the north-east joins the Dudhganga in the Chikodi sub-division of Belgaum. Its chief feeder is the Chikotra, which flows through the Kapsi valley and joins it near Chikhli about four miles to the south of its meeting with the Dudhganga. The bed of the Vedganga is shallow and muddy. In Kagal its banks yield rich
crops during the cold season and in Bhudargad a large area is watered. The river is bridged near Yamgarni on the Poona-Belgaum road. It is fordable except during the rains, when it is crossed by ferries in nine places Gargoti, Shengaon, Madilge, Mhamdapur, Nidori, Anur, Chikhli, Bange, and Danvad.
The Hiranyakeshi takes its rise in the Amboli pass in the extreme south-west, of the State. It has an irregular north-east course of about forty miles to near Sankeshvar, where it enters Belgaum, and after a south-easterly course of about fifteen miles joins the Ghatprabha about five miles south-east of Hukeri. Its bed is shallow and its banks yield good crops though not so rich as those grown on the Panchganga. Its chief tributary is the Chitri which takes its rise near the village of Aundi in the Ajra petty division, and after a northerly course of about ten miles joins the main stream near the town of Ajra. Two first class ferries cross these streams one at Ajra on the Hiranyakeshi on the Amboli road, the other across the Chitri on the Nesri road. First class ferry-boats are also kept at Hitni, Harli, Bhadgaon, and Jarli on the Hiranyakeshi, carrying fifty to seventy passengers and one and a half tons of luggage. Small boats, carrying five or six men, are kept at Salgaon, Ingli, Hiralge, and Kaulge.
The Ghatprabha takes its rise in the south slopes of the Parpoli pass in the extreme south of the State. It flows about twenty-five miles north-east through the south of Kolhapur territory and about twenty miles further to the north-east, and joins the Hiranyakeshi about five miles south-east of Hukeri. From Hukeri it passes about ninety miles east through Gokak, Mudhol, and Bagalkot till it falls into the Krishna at Chimalgi about fifteen miles north-east of Bagalkot. During the twenty-five miles of its course through Kolhapur its banks and bed are rocky. During the rainy season a small boat carrying eight passengers is kept at Nesri in Gadinglaj.
The Malprabha runs through the outlying district of Torgal far to the south-east. Its bed is rocky and its banks steep. Among Hindus the Malprabha in sanctity ranks next to the Krishna. No boat is kept on the river. When in flood it is crossed on rafts buoyed by dry gourds.
Kolhapur on the whole is well supplied with water. Besides the
six chief rivers and their numerous feeders, spring water is available in most parts twenty to fifty feet below the surface. In Karvir, Raybag, and Alta, which have about 5000 or half of the whole number of wells and have a large area of watered crops, especially of sugarcane, there is abundance of water at twenty to thirty feet and in some of the Raybag villages at ten feet below the surface. In Vishalgad, Panhala, Bhudargad, and Ajra in the west close to the Sahyadris wells are few as they have to be sunk
at least fifty feet. Compared with 11,098 wells shown in the 1850 returns the 1881 village returns give a total of 10,344. The fall of 754 in the number of wells is said to be due to the fact that the holes or budkis dug in the beds of rivers, of which there are now about 4000, were included in the 1850 returns. Of the 10,344 wells in 1881,7547 were in repair and 2797 were out of repair. About 2500 are masonry built and the rest are either unbuilt or faced with dry rubble. Over 6000 wells or considerably more than one-half are used for watering and the rest for drinking. A well costs to sink from £10 (Rs. 100) where the water is near the surface and the soil is soft to £50 (Rs. 500) where the soil is hard and the well has to be sunk thirty-five feet or more. A masonry lined well according to the soil costs £100 to £300 (Rs. 1000 - 3000) to build. Except by a few Persian wheels water is drawn by the mot or leather bug, of which one and sometimes two are worked at a time. The leather bag holds about sixty gallons, four-fifths of which find their way into the water channel. In the cold weather, about one-fourth of an acre is watered by one bag working eight hours a day; in the hot season, when the springs are lower not more than one-eighth of an acre can be watered. A well with water enough to work a bag all the year round is held to be able to water two acres of garden land. In years of average rainfall the wells can be trusted to yield enough to bring the sugarcane crops safe through the hot weather. But in a year of special light fall as in 1881-82 with
32.16 inches, the springs fail and great loss is suffered. In spite of this risk a strong desire is shown to sink new wells and the number of working wells increases every year.
The only complete protection from the risk of the failure of its
springs is in storing water in lakes and reservoirs. The numerous streams offer many sites suitable for dams, but no work of this kind has yet been carried out. Compared with 197 in 1850 the 1881 returns show a total of 112 village ponds. The fall of eighty-five in the number of ponds is said to be due to the fact that a number of damp hollows, which were entered as ponds in the 1850 returns have since 1850 been turned into rice fields. Of the 112 ponds in 1881, only four the Rankale and the Padmale ponds in Kolhapur and the Atigre and Raybag ponds, have an area of more than twenty-five acres. Among these the only piece of water of considerable size is the Rankale lake in Kolhapur town. Its circumference is about two miles and a half and its mean depth thirty-five feet. It has lately been improved at a cost of £26,000 (Rs.
2,60,000) and supplies drinking water to part of Kolhapur, besides watering a hundred acres of garden land. At Kolhapur, besides the Rankale lake the Padmale pond is of considerable size covering about fifty and watering about thirty-five acres. It is mentioned in the local history or mahatmya and is held sacred. The Atigre pond, the only other pond of any size, on the Miraj road about twelve miles north-east of Kolhapur covers fifty acres but is shallow and dries during the hot weather. It is mentioned in the local history and is held sacred. During the cold season it has generally some water-fowl. About a mile south-east of Raybag in the Shirol sub-division the Abu pond covers about twenty-five acres and holds water all the year round.During the cold season it is a resort
of water-fowl. Of the remaining ponds 62 are less than one acre in area, forty-four are under ten acres, and two are under twenty-five. Most of them dry in the hot season. In ordinary seasons the supply of drinking water is sufficient. About
700 of the 1079 villages stand close to rivers and streams which flow throughout the year. In the remaining 379 villages the streams and ponds dry in the hot months (April-June) and the people take their water from wells and pits dug in the stream beds. Kolhapur and Kagal are supplied with drinking water brought from outside of the towns in iron pipes. At Ichalkaranji the water is pumped from the Panchganga river and is carried into the town along masonry ducts.