v- PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE STATE in the last
century consisted mostly in providing security of person and
property and raising the revenue necessary for the purpose. In other
words, Police, Jails and Judiciary representing security, and Land
Revenue, Excise, Registration and Stamps representing revenue formed
the most important departments of the State. The Public Works
Department was the only other branch of sufficient importance, but
its activities of construction and maintenance were, apart from
roads and irrigation works, confined to buildings required for the
departments of Government. With the spread of Western education and
the growth of political consciousness in the country, and as a
result of the gradual association of a few Indians with some aspects
of the work of government the demand arose for the expansion of
governmental activities into what were called "nation building"
departments, namely Education, Health, Agriculture, Co-operation,
In the twenties and thirties of this century, after
the introduction of the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms a greater
emphasis came to be laid on the development of these departments.
When, as a result of the Government of India Act of 1935, complete
popularization of the Provincial Government took place in 1937, the
new Government attempted not only to expand the "nation-building"
departments but also to take steps in the direction of creating what
has now come to be generally described as a Welfare State. After the
close of World War II and the attainment of independence by India in
1947, an all-out effort is being made to achieve a Welfare State as
rapidly as possible and to build up a socially directed economy. The
present activities of the State, therefore, require a much more
elaborate system than what was felt to be necessary during the
In the descriptions that follow in this chapter and
in chapters 14-18, the departments of the State operating in
Kolhapur district have been grouped into six categories, composed as
Structure.-Land Revenue and General Administration [This is
composed of the Collector and his subordinate officers.] and Local
Chapter 14-Justice and
Peace.-Judiciary, Police, Jails and Juveniles and Beggars.
Chapter 15-Revenue and
Finance.-Land Records, Sales Tax, Registration, Stamps, and
Departments.-Agriculture, Veterinary, Forests, Co-operation,
Industrial Co-operatives and Village Industries, Industries, Public
Works, and Road Transport.
Departments.-Education, Technical and Industrial Training,
Medical, Public Health, Labour, Prohibition and Excise, Backward
Classes, the Charity Commissioner and Community Projects and
National Extension Service.
Departments.-Town Planning and Valuation, Publicity, and
Administration of Managed Estates.