AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION
PESTS: The details of the various pests of crops
grown in the district are given below. The extent of damage done by
the different pests cannot be accurately estimated, as it depends
upon the severity of infestation in any particular year.
Bhatachya lombya kurtadnarya
Bhatachya lombya kurtadnarya
alya, the swarming caterpillars (spodoptera
mauritia), occasionally make a serious depredation on
paddy in the kharif season. These insects feed on green
foliage and destroy plants. The crop is protected by dusting with 10
per cent. benzenhexachloride (B.H.C.). The latter is more effective,
Bin Pankhi to.
Bin pankhi tol, the wingless
grasshopper of the Deccan (colemania sphenariodes), is
a serious and widespread pest. These pests are active during the
period from July to November and mostly attack the crops of paddy,
jowar and bajri in the kharif season. It is effectively
checked by dusting with 10 per cent. B.H.C. powder at the rate of 25
to 30 lbs. per acre.
Khod kida, the stem-borer
(chillo zonellus), is active from May to
October and the damage done is occasionally reported as serious.
These caterpillars bore into the central shoot of the plant and
destroy it from within. In order to destroy this pest the stubbles
of the previous crop are uprooted and burnt. The jowar kadbi
should be cut into half inch bits for the purpose of storing. These
hiberanating caterpillars are wholly destroyed from the fields by
burying the jowar stubbles below ground 5" to 6" deep for about two
Khekada, the crab (paratelphusa
guerini ; gecarcinucus jacque
montii) is a serious pest of paddy in the western zone of the
district. The crabs destroy the paddy crop during July, August and
September. They can be destroyed by the application of cyano gas "A"
dust at the rate of one tea spoonful per burrow or fumigating
burrows with cyano gas by means of a foot pump; fumigation is done
in the evenings.
Pikavari kajave, the blister beetles
(zonabris pashilata) are insects which have upper
wings converted to hard wing cases, and attack the earheads of the
bajri and paddy crop during the kharif season. The damage
done is occasionally serious. These beetles are collected by hand
Lod or Shirkid.
Lod or shirkid, army worms
(cirphis loreyi cirphis unipuncta), are
caterpillars and appear in swarms and destroy the green foliage of
the crops. This pest is widely distributed in the district and is
active during the kharif season. Occasionally it is serious.
It can be controlled by thorough ploughing after the harvest in
order to expose the pupae from the soil, by crushing the
caterpillars lying in the central whorls of plants, and by dusting
the affected crop with some stomach poison such as Paris green or
Sheda, rice hispa (hispa
arnuigera). This beetle feeds on the leaves of the
paddy plant. It also feeds on wild grasses and spends the cold
season on the bunds and waste lands from where it invades the paddy
fields by flight. It appears in March and passes through many
generations. Damage is done to young and healthy dark green paddy
crop. It is effectively checked by spray of 50 per cent. water
dispersible B.H.C. 2 to 3 lbs. in 100 gallons of water.
Bhatache Khodatil Kid.
Bhatache khodatil kid, the stem
borer (schoenobius incertellus). This is a
shoot boring caterpillar. Eggs are laid on the leaves and the
caterpillar later bores into the stem. Young paddy is not much
harmed but the later generations of the cater-pillars check the
developing ears which turn prematurely white. Rotation of crop, if
possible and ploughing of stubbles after harvest of the crop, is the
effective measure to check its spread.
Khod-kida, the stem borer (argyria
sticticraspis), is a pest widely distributed and attacks
sugarcane seriously during the early stage of the crop. These
caterpillars bore into the central shoots of the young cane and
destroy it. In the early stages, if the attack is localised the
affected canes are cut along with the caterpillars inside and
Shende pokharnari ali.
Shende pokharanari ali, the top
shoot borer (scirpophage nivella), is a serious and widely
distributed pest. These caterpillars bore into the stems and destroy
the plant. Infestation by this pest is noticed throughout the life
of sugarcane. This pest is being controlled by collecting and
destroying the egg masses and by encouraging egg parasites in the
field. In the early stages, the affected shoots are cut from their
bases along with the caterpillers and destroyed.
Usavaril tudtude, the sugarcane leaf
hopper (pyrilla-sp.) is a pest occasionally serious in
sugarcane growing areas. It is very rarely seen in this district.
The eggs laid in the cold Season hibernate and, from May to
December, all stages of the pest are seen on the cane. The adults
and nymphs suck the leaves and devitalise the cane. The egg masses
are crushed by hand. After the harvest of the infested crop, the
trash is burnt. The egg parasites are encouraged in the sugarcane
fields. In the case of localised attack, spraying with nicotine
sulphate is also found beneficial.
Of Fruits and Vegetables.
Bhirud, the mango stem-borer (batocera
rubus) is a widely distributed pest in the district and
sometimes it assumes serious proportions. The larvae tunnels into
the stem and branches, If young plants are infested, the plants are
destroyed. The ways of controlling this pest include extraction of
the larvae from the tunnels by means of a thick beat wire, cleaning
of larval burrows and fumigation of the bore with a solution
consisting of carbon disuplhide and petrol in equal proportion.
Tudtude, the mango hoppers
(indiocerus-spp.), do considerable damage to the mango
inflorescence. The pest is active from December to March. Although
it appears every year, some-times it assumes serious importance. The
pest is very widely distrbuted. The nymphs and adults desap the
young inflorescence, with the result that the tender developing
fruits fall down prematurely. Dusting with five per cent. D.D.T. and
sulphur dust mixed in equal quantity is found to be effective in
controlling this pest.
Devi, the scale insect
(aspidiotus sp.), usually attacks citrus fruits such
as lemons and mosambi. These insects are covered with a shell
of secretory material over their bodies and suck the sap from
various parts of the plant and the developing fruits and cause
considerable damage to the crop. The only effective measure of
controlling these insects is to spray the plants with a resin
Mava, the vegetable aphids. It is a very
widely distributed pest and consists of a number of species.
Different species infest a number of different vegetables, such as
cabbage, nawalkol, peas, radish and brinjals during
September-March. This pest has been effectively controlled by
spraying (i) fish oil resin soap, (ii) tobaco decoction or nicotine
sulphate and (iii) pyrocolloid solution in the proportion of 1 in
800 parts of water. Fifty wetable B.H.C. is also very effective.
Mulya Kurtadnarya alya.
Mulya kurtadnarya alya, the cut
worm (agrotis sp.) generally attacks cruciferous
plants, tomato, potato and chilly. Occasionally, the pest assumes
serious importance. The larvae cut the growing plants at their
collars and feed on the green foliage of the cut plants. It is a
usual practice to trap these worms in dry grass heaps. In the early
moring dry grasses are heaped at various places in the infested
fields. during the hot part of the day the larvae seek shelter under
such heaps, which along with the caterpillars are destroyed in, the
evening. Frequent interculturing and stirring up the soil also helps
to check this pest. Poison baits are also found useful.
Phal mashi, the fruit fly
(chaetodacus sp.), is a major pest, occasionally
reported as serious, on cucurbits, mango and guava in the fruiting
season. These maggots feed into the ripening fruits and damage them.
The flies are trapped and destroyed. The affected fruits are removed
from the trees and destroyed. In order to check further infestation,
spot spraying on the crop with tartar emetic may be adopted.
Tambade mungle. the red ants
(oecophylla smargdina), are a great menace to
the gardeners particularly at the time of harvest and other
operations in the fruit orchards, especially in mango gardens. Their
incidence is due to the presence of mealy bugs on the plants. Red
ants have been controlled by dusting with ten per cent. B.H.C.
Thrips (thrips tabacci),
occasionally attack seriously vegetable crops such as onions,
chillies and potatoes. These insects feed on the green leaves and
shoots, with the result that the leaves turn yellow and dry up.
Spraying the affected crop with tobacco decoction is found
Tomato pokharnari ali.
Tomato pokharnari ali, the
tomato fruit-borer (heliothes obsoleta). These
caterpillars are recently reported as serious pest at times on
tomato fruits. The larvae bore into the frurts and destroy them.
Spraying the tomato plants with lead arsenate is found effective.
The fruits from the treated plants should be washed before they are
sent to the market.
Wangi pokharnari ali.
Wangi pokharnari ali, the
brinjal fruit borer (leucinodes orbonelis), is a major
pest of the brinjal with a wide distribution in the district.
Brinjal is the only fruit vegetable grown in the district throughout
the year on a large scale. The fruits are bored and destroyed by the
caterpillars. The affected shoots and fruits are clipped off and
destroyed along with the insects. The infested crop is sprayed with
lead arsenate. The fruits from such plants should be washed before
sending to market.
Undir, the rat. This rodent is a pest of
cultivated crops such as paddy, wheat, groundnut and sweet potatoes
in the fields and stored grains in the godowns and houses. In the
fields, the rats are destroyed by hunting trapping and poison
baiting with barium carbonte, white arsenic or zinc phosphide. In
the houses and godowns, the rat burrows are successfully fumigated
with cynao gas powder to kill the rats inside.
Valvi, the white ants. Occasionally white
ants are reported as infesting roots of field crops such as wheat,
jowar, bajri and sugarcane. The pest is widespread and active
throughout the year. If the pest is of a mound-forming specie, the
ant-hill is dug and the queen ant is killed. Poison baiting with
Paris green and wheat bran is also effective. Application of crude
oil to irrigation water also helps to drive out the white ants from
the infested fields.
Vanar, the monkeys. Losses on account of
monkeys are serious at times in the district, especially on the
adjoining lulls. Damage is done not only to fruits but also to grain
The damage caused by wild animals is not much as
these animals are rarely found in the district. Wild pigs are great
enemies of the crops in the hilly areas (especially paddy and
DISEASES: In addition to the damage done by pests,
the crops in the Kolhapur district suffer from various diseases.
Given below is a brief description of each of the important diseases
affecting the important crops of the district.
Kanis the jowar
Kanis the jowar smut (spacelotheca
sorahi). Individual grains in the ears get enlarged,
the outer covering remaining in tact the contents are replaced by
blackish-brown powdery mass. The best treatment to check this
disease consists of treatment with fine sulphur powder before
sowing, the cost of which works out at hardly an anna per acre.
Kani, the wheat smut.
Kani, the loose smut of wheat
(ustilago tritici). This disease is confined to wheat crop
only, and the damage done is negligible. Solar heat treatment of the
seed before sowing effectively controls and minimises the chances of
the crop from being affected by this disease.
Karpa, the blast of rice, (piricularia
oryzae). This disease has assumed large proportions in the
district, especially in the heavy rainfall tracts. Considerable
damagr is done eherever it occurs. Seed treatment with Perenox,
before sowing, and and spraving the crop with its solution is
recommended and found effective.
Tambera, the rust (puccima
graminis tritici). This disease occurs
generally in wheat fields. Late rains are favourable to this
disease. The rust resistant strain viz., kenphad is being
distributed to replace the local as well as the khapli
varieties which are also attacked by this disease.
Of Fruits and Vegetables.
The following diseases affect fruits and vegetables:
Bhuri, of mango.
Bhuri, the powdery mildew of mango
(oidium mangiferae) This affects the blossoms of
mango. It occurs simultaneously with hoppers and causes severe
blighting of blossoms during January and February. This disease is
very effectively controlled by the application of fine sulphur dust
to the blossoms at intervals of a fortnight. From three to five
applications during the season, beginning with the blossoming
period, are sufficient.
Bhuri, of peas.
Bhuri, the powdery mildew of peas
(erysiphe polygoni). This disease is locally
known as taka and is a limiting factor in the cultivation of
peas. The disease appears in the rabi crop at the time of
flowering and the yield reduces considerably. It has been
successfully controlled by one application of fine sulphur dust at
flowering time at the rate of about 25 lbs. per acre.
Dinkya, the fummosis of citrus
(phytophthora palmivora). This disease occurs on lemon
trees in the district, though on rare occasions. Ring irrigation is
an important preventive measure. The gum is treated with creosote
Kevada, the yellow vein mosaic of
bhendi is a virus disease; both the kharif and
rabi crops of bhendi suffer from it. It is very
destructive and widespread and causes much damage to the crop. It is
highly infectious and is transmitted by the while fly. Systematic
rouging and destruction of all affected plants in the season
effectively controls the disease.
Kobi kujane, the blackrot of cabbage
(xanthomonas campestris). This a bacterial disease and
takes serious proportions in contaminated soil. The disease is
seedborne and is amenable to seed treatment with mercuric
perchloride solution. The treatment is adopted on a limited scale
only and is not for general application.
Mar, of brinjals.
Mar, the wilt in brinjals
(verticillium dahliae). Brinjal crop suffers
seriously from this disease. It is a high temperature disease. The
damage, therefore, depends upon the soil temperature.
Mar, the fruit rot.
Mar, the fruit rot. This disease is found in
chillies, causing shedding of flowers and dieback of branches. It
spreads during October-December. Spraying twice with 0.3 per cent.
Perenox or one per cent. Bordeaux mixture in October-December
controls the disease.
Tikka, the leaf spots in groundnut
(cercospora personata). Small yellowish spots appear
on the leaves. These spots become larger and larger, and
ultimately make the leaves look yellowish brown. These leaves drop
off and weeken the plants; pod formation is, therefore, arrested.
Spraying the undersurface with 0.3 per cent. Perenox helps to
control this disease.