JUSTICE AND PEACE
Location of jails.
THERE IS ONLY A DISTRICT PRISON AT KOLHAPUR. As
such prisoners convicted and sentenced for a term exceeding three
months and upto two years are confined in this prison. Casual
prisoners sentenced and convicted over two years and above from the
district are transferred to Yeravda Central Prison. Habitual
prisoners, however, are transferred to Nasik Road Central Prison.
Short-term prisoners with sentences ranging from one week to a month
are accommodated in the taluka subsidiary jails which are about
eleven and are located at the following places:-
These sub-jails are classified as Class III
sub-jails and the administration of these sub-jails is in the hands
of the personnel from the Revenue Department.
The sub-jail at Kolhapur City is a IInd Class
sub-jail where a departmental Jailor is working to assist the
Superintendent of a district jail at Kolhapur. The sub-jail at
Ichalkaranji is also a IInd class head quarter sub-jail where also a
departmental Jailor is working under the supervision of a
Superintendent of district jail at Kolhapur. The Jailors at Kolhapur
and Ichalkaranji are assisted by a clerk and jail guards from the
department. The number of guarding establishment is (unarmed) 20 and
(armed) 20 at Kolhapur Sub-Jail, and Ichalkaranji Sub-Jail is only
two unarmed guards, outside guarding is done by the Police
The prison at Kolhapur is classified as " District
Prison" and is put in charge of a Superintendent. He is assisted by
jailors, clerks, guards, Maharashtra Medical Service Class III
Officer and a compounder. The total number of unarmed guards is 36
and that of armed guards 24. The police lock-ups in the district are
under the direct control of Inspector-General of Police, Maharashtra
The Inspector-General of Prisons exercises, subject
to the orders of the State Government general control and
superintendence of all prisons and jails in the State. He is
assisted by the Deputy Inspector-General, Personal Assistant,
Superintendent of Jail Industries and other office staff members.
The Executive Officer in charge of a central or
district prison is the Superintendent who is vested with the
executive management of the prison in all matters relating to
internal economy, discipline, labour, punishment and control
generally subject to the orders and authority of the
Inspector-General. Under him are subordinate Executive Officers
(like Deputy Superintendent, Jailors, Subhedars, Jamadars etc. and
ministerial subordinates like steward, head clerk, senior clerk
etc.). In addition there are other subordinates like medical
officer, compounders, nursing orderly etc., also at each one of the
central and district prisons in the State. The Convict Officers
i.e., prisoners promoted to the ranks of convict overseers and night
watchmen under the Jail Rules assist the jail guards in their
executive duties. The services of well behaved convict overseers are
being utilized now for doing patrolling duty outside the sleeping
barracks but inside the jail at night time. The main wall and the
outer yards are always manned for duty by the guarding staff.
The post Of Inspector-General is generally filled in
by the appointment of an I. C S. or I. A. S. officer or by promotion
from amongst those who are borne on the cadre of the Superintendent
of Central Prison i.e., including the holder of the post of the
Deputy Inspector General or by transfer of a suitable officer in
Maharashtra Medical Service Class I, or by direct recruitment. The
Superintendents of Central Prisons are officers promoted from the
ranks of Superintendents of District Prisons. The senior-most
Superintendent of a Central Prison is usually appointed to hold the
post of Deputy Inspector-General after consulting the Public Service
Commission. The Superintendents of District Prisons are appointed
both by direct recruitment or by promotion from amongst Jailors
Grade I in the proportion of 1:2. Jailors in Grade I are also
appointed both by direct recruitment and by departmental promotion
in the proportion of 1:2. The candidates for direct recruitment to
the post of Superintendent of a district prison and/or Jailor Grade
I must be Honours graduates and they are recommended for appointment
by the State Public Service Commission. A diploma in Sociology or
Penology is an additional qualification. Appointments to Grade II
are made by the Inspector-General by promotion of Jailors Grade II
and appointments to Grade III are made by the Inspector-General
fifty per cent. of which are by nomination from amongst candidates
from the open market who are necessarily required to be graduates
and the other fifty per cent. of the appointments are given to
suitable departmental men who have passed the Matriculation
Examination or its other equivalent examination. The candidates for
appointment to the post of Jailor Grade III are interviewed by a
Selection Board consisting of the Inspector-General and two
Superintendents of prisons who are nominated by Government. The
posts of sepoys are filled in by direct recruitment and the higher
posts from the Guarding establishment are generally filled in by
promotion according to seniority but if suitable persons according
to seniority are not available, appointment to the posts in higher
grade are made by selection from amongst the members of the next
lower ranks or by nomination of candidates with some high academic
qualifications which are fixed for each post in high grade
Appointment to the posts of junior clerk are made by
nomination from amongst candidates who have passed the Matriculation
Examination or its equivalent. Appointment to the ministerial posts
in higher grade are made by promotion generally according to
seniority from amongst the members of the next lower rank. Medical
officers are drafted for service in Jail Department for a period of
two years from the Medical Department.
The Superintendents of Prisons and Jailors receive
theoretical as well as practical training in Jail Officers' Training
School at Yeravda on a scientific basis in all fields of
correctional work. A comprehensive training programme in
correctional administration has been prescribed for the said purpose
and a vocational course of training has been chalked out which is
designed to meet the actual requirements of jail guards in
discharging their daily duties satisfactorily.
An accounts test has also been prescribed for
Gazetted and non-Gazetted Superior staff of the Jail Department,
i.e. superintendents, jailors, stewards, clerks etc. The examination
is conducted by the Public Service Commission, Bombay for
Superintendents including Superintendent of Jail Industries, Jailors
in Grades I and II and for members of the clerical cadre from Senior
Clerk onwards and by the Inspector-General of Prisons for Jailors
Grade III, Junior Clerks and technical staff.
A Physical Training Instructor visits the Jails in
the State in rotation and imparts training in drill, games and other
physical activities both to the inmates of the jail and also to the
Thus it will be seen that due care has been taken to
see that every jail officer and every jail subordinate gets an
adequate opportunity to acquaint himself with the theoretical as
well as practical sides of his duties, so that he can discharge them
quite satisfactorily. The training programme has in fact gained an
important place in the jail administration which is aiming at giving
a material shape to the cherished idea of Mahatma Gandhi that "
imprisonment should primarily aim at treating a prisoner's diseased
mind since the crime which he commits is but a sign of a diseased
mind, and also making him fit to go into society after his release
to lead an honest life."
A part of the guarding establishment is armed. This
section serves as a reserve guard to reinforce the unarmed guards in
the immediate charge of prisoners inside the prison or in
extra-mural gangs in the event of assault, mutiny, escape or other
emergency. It is also available to mount guard over particularly
dangerous prisoner or prisoners sentenced to death who are
recognised in jail parlance as "condemned prisoners". The armed
guards at main jails except Bombay jails belonged to the Jail
Department and those at head-quarter and taluka sub-jails, were
drafted for duty from the Police Department. This system of drafting
armed guards from the Police Department for guarding duty at certain
jails besides being uneconomical was the source of some avoidable
complications particularly on occurrence of a mishap like escape of
a prisoner. It has therefore been decided by Government to replace
gradually the armed guards of Police Department by the armed guards
of the Jail Department. The departmental armed guards are detailed
at Kolhapur jail. The unarmed guards at all the Jails in the State
except Taluka sub-jails belong to the Jail Department. One or more
Jail guards are deputed at head quarter sub-jails from the nearest
Central, District or Special Prisons. The period of deputation does
not usually exceed three years without obtaining specific sanction
of the Inspector-General for extension. They wear a prescribed
uniform and carry with them while on duty only a baton which also is
very sparingly used now-a-days.
No post of Matron is sanctioned for the Kolhapur
District Prison, Kolhapur city and Ichalkaranji sub-jails but the
Superintendent is empowered to engage matron locally whenever a
woman prisoner is admitted to jail. Services of the matron are
dispensed with as soon as the woman prisoner is discharged from jail
and an extra establishment statement is submitted in her (i.e.
matron's) case to the Inspector-General for sanction under rule
79(7) of the Manual of Financial Powers.
No Medical staff is sanctioned for head quarter
sub-jails but the Maharashtra Medical Service Officer in charge of
the local Government dispensary or the medical officer attached to
the Local Board or Municipal dispensary stationed at or nearest to
the place where the sub-jail is situated is deemed to be the medical
officer of the jail. He receives no extra pay for the jail duty but
is entitled to an allowance of Rs. 15 or Rs. 20 p.m. if the daily
average number of prisoners in the jail exceeds 40 or 80
respectively. He has to visit the sub-jail regularly at least twice
in a week and also at such other times as he may be sent for to
attend cases of serious illness or to examine newly admitted
prisoners. A small stock of medicines is always kept in the sub-jail
office to treat minor cases of illness etc. and serious cases are
transferred to the local Government dispensary for treatment.
Classification of Prisoners.
Prisoners are classified as Class I or Class II
after taking into consideration their status in society and also the
nature of the offence. They are further classified as casuals,
habituals, undertrials, and security or detenus. There is no
separate class of political prisoners but certain rules which do not
allow the grant of facilities and privileges on the score of length
of sentence are relaxed in their favour under the specific orders of
Government. Prisoners are also grouped as " short termers, medium
termers and long termers." Prisoners with a sentence upto three
months are classed as short-termers, those sentenced to three months
and above but upto two years are classified as medium termers and
those sentenced to two years and above as long termers. The short
termers are given deterrent treatment, while in the case of medium
and long termers paramount importance is given to the reformation of
the prisoner. Head quarter sub-jails are meant for the confinement
of short-term prisoners and undertrial prisoners only.
A Jail Reforms Committee was appointed by Government
in 1946 and in their report dated August 1947, the Committee made
several recommendations to Government calculated to conduce to the
reformation of the prisoner and Government accepted many of those
recommendations. The rules for the treatment have been liberalized.
The regulations regarding corporal punishment have been tightened
and whipping as a jail punishment is now to be awarded in
exceptional cases after obtaining prior sanction of Government.
Punishments of penal diet and gunny clothing have been abolished.
Rules about letters and interviews have also been liberalised.
Jail canteens have been opened in main jails only;
where eatables, drinks, fruits etc. are available for sale to
prisoners out of their earnings. The canteen thus serves as an
incentive to prisoners to work and earn wages.
Canteen profits accruing from canteen transactions
are utilized for purchase of articles like radios, books,
accessories for staging plays and such articles to promote welfare
Remission of sentence.
Only long-termers come within the ambit of the rules
on the subject. Prisoners confined in the main prison are granted
liberal remissions which are classified as below:-
(1) Ordinary remission.
(2) Annual good conduct remission.
(3) Special remission.
(4) Blood donation remission.
(5) Remission for conservancy work.
(6) Remission for physical training.
In addition State remission is awarded by Government
on occasions of public rejoicing. It is granted unconditionally and
cannot be forfeited under any circumstances.
Work is arranged according to the prisoner's health.
On admission the prisoner is examined by the medical officer who
classifies him as fit for light, medium or hard labour. The Work
Allotment Committee is constituted for Central District Jails, the
members of which have to take into account health conditions of the
prisoners, their aptitude, past experience etc. and assign suitable
work for newly admitted prisoners with a sentence of six months and
above. Any changes in the work so allotted to prisoners by the
committee have to be effected, only with the concurrence of the
members of the Committee. No such committee is to be appointed for
short term prisoners. The following are the industries in which
prisoners are engaged during the period of their imprisonment at the
Kolhapur District Prison:-
(1) Hand loom weaving.
(2) Pitloom weaving.
Payment of Wages.
Long term and medium term prisoners, so also
security and undertrial prisoners who volunteer to work are paid
1/5th of the wages, which are paid normally for similar work
outside, provided they complete their daily quota of task to the
satisfaction of the authorities concerned.
Release on parole and furlough.
A prisoner may be released on parole in cases of
serious illness or death of any member of his family or his nearest
relative or for any other sufficient cause. The period spent on
parole will not count as part of the sentence.
The prisoner who desires to be released on parole
has to submit his application to the Jail Superintendent who has to
endorse his remarks thereon and submit one copy thereof direct to
Government and one copy to the Inspector-General of Prisons along
with the normal roll of the prisoner concerned. Prisoners who apply
for parole on false grounds or who abuse the concession or commit
breaches of any of the conditions of parole are liable to be
punished. Enquiries as regards genuineness or otherwise of the
grounds advanced in the application are made through the local
Revenue and Police Officers.
Prisoners with a sentence of one year and above are
entitled to being released on furlough for a period of two weeks
which will be counted as a part of his sentence.
Board of Visitors.
A Board of Visitors composing officials and
non-official visitors is appointed for every head quarter sub-jail
and taluka sub-jails. There are ordinarily four non-official
visitors for head quarter sub-jails out of which two are members of
the Maharashtra Legislature is made for a period not exceeding three
years. Persons who in the opinion of Government are interested in
the Prison administration and are likely to take interest in the
welfare of prisoners both while they are in prison and after their
release are nominated by Government on the Board of Visitors on the
recommendation of the District Magistrate concerned and the
Inspector-General of Prisons.
The Chairman of the Board of Visitors who is usually
the District Magistrate of the District arranges for a weekly visit
to the prison by one of the members of the Board. Quarterly meetings
of the whole Board are convened. Non-official visitors are also
allowed to visit prison on any day at any time during the day in
addition to the weekly visit arranged by the Chairman. The Board
records in the Visitor's Book its observations on the result of the
detailed inspection of the Jails. Any remark at the quarterly
meeting or at the weekly visits deserving special and prompt
disposal is immediately forwarded by the Superintendent, to the
Inspector-General for necessary orders. Other remarks made by the
visitors and the quarterly committee of visitors are forwarded
immediately after the end of the month by the Superintendent to the
Inspector-General for necessary orders. Other remarks made by the
visitors and the quarterly committee of visitors are forwarded
immediately after the end of the month by the Superintendent to the
Inspector-general with such remarks as he may desire to offer.
Jail Panchayat Committee.
In bigger jails a committee of prisoners is selected
for each yard by the prisoners themselves, and the jailor and the
Superintendent consult the committee which is known in jail parlance
as " Jail Panchayat Committee in matters of discipline and general
welfare of prisoners.
Literacy classes are conducted for those prisoners
who are ignorant of the three R's under the supervision of literate
convicts and paid teachers appointed only at some of the main jails
in the State. Regular annual examinations are held in the jail by
the Deputy Educational Inspectors. As remuneration for conducting
literacy classes in jail, an amount is received as grant-in-aid from
the Education Department, 25 per cent. of which is given to the
convict teachers as an encouragement after the quarterly
examinations of the students (prisoners) are held and the rest of
the amount is utilized towards the purchase of books, boards etc.
required for the literacy classes. Films of educational and
reformative values are also exhibited by the District Regional
Publicity Officer concerned.
Sanitation and Hygiene.
Utmost precautions are taken in treating the
prisoners suffering from various diseases. As such Jail Hospitals
are equipped with all possible requirements, special types of
diseases are attended to with due care. All possible measures are
taken against the spread of epidemics. Prisoners suffering from skin
and other contagious diseases are admitted into the hospital and are
not allowed to mix freely with other prisoners.
Washing soda and hair oil are issued to prisoners
once a week. In addition, those doing conservancy work and employed
as cooks are issued soap once a week at Government cost.
The daily Jail routine extends from 5-15 a.m. to
9-30 p.m. The actual working hours are from 8-15 a.m. to 10-45 a.m.
and 11-45 a.m. to 4-15 p.m. i.e., 7 hours in all and other parts of
routine include time for meditation, congregational prayers,
physical training, games, social adjustments, talks, singing of
devotional songs, education classes and reading of news-papers and
books. Central and district prisons in the State have extensive
factories comprising various sections like Textile, Carpentry,
Smithy, Mochi etc. Prisoners in headquarter sub-jails are employed
in gardens attached to the Jail. Prison services include sweeping of
barracks, kitchen, conservancy etc. and works like manufacture of
narrow tape, cot tape etc.
The authorised accommodation and daily average
population of Kolhapur District Prison and Kolhapur Sub-jail and
Ichalkaranji Sub-jail in Kolhapur District for the year 1957 was as
Name of the Jail.
Daily average number for the year 1957.