IN 1926, THERE WERE 12 BAKERIES in Kolhapur city.
Most of them were started after 1921. Round about 1947, the city
contained 35 bakeries, 18 of which were in C ward, five each in A
and B wards, four in D ward and three in E ward. There were 75
bakeries at the time of survey. Most of them were family concerns
which were managed by owners with the help of male members of their
families. These establishments employed 48 employees other than
family members. Of the 75 bakeries, 28 were located in C ward, 17 in
B ward, 13 in D ward, nine in E ward and eight in A ward. Six shops
which were taken in the sample, were managed by 15 owners and their
family members, and 17 paid employees. Principal work done in these
establishments was baking of breads and biscuits, which provided
employment throughout the year. One establishment in the sample was
situated in proprietor's own building worth Rs. 40,000. The
remaining five were housed in rented premises. The rent of each
varied from Rs. 20 to Rs. 50 according to the size of the
The mechanical equipment of these establishments
consisted of a large wooden table to prepare the dough, ovens with
its accessory equipment such as trays, small iron sheet boxes to
bake the bread, long iron rods, vessels, moulds and one or two
cupboards. The cost of equipment ranged from Rs. 400 to Rs. 3,000
depending upon the size of the establishment. The cost of oven
varied from Rs. 250 to Rs. 1,000.
The use of modern machinery and process of
manufacture was almost absent in these concerns. Only one bakery was
using kneading machine. The entire process of baking breads in the
other bakeries was done by physical labour by persons who had
acquired skill through years of practice and experience.
Raw materials required for the manufacture of bread
and biscuits were wheet-flour or maida, yeast, butter, sugar, salt,
hydrogenated oil etc. The average consumption of raw materials in a
small unit per month was about 20 maunds of wheat-flour, 17 lbs. of
hydrogenated oil and about a maund of sugar. The cast of raw
materials per month varied from Rs. 600 to Rs. 1,500 depending upon
the size of the establishment and its turnover. The cost of
production excluding cost of raw materials of a small unit worked
out at about Rs. 100 per month.
The five units manufactured about 1,000 lbs. of
biscuits, 2,71,000 butter biscuits, 3,402 lbs. of bread, 82 lbs. of
toast and 150 dozens of buns in a month. A pound of bread was
sold at annas five and six pies to annas six. A pound of biscuits
was sold at annas eleven in one shop and annas fourteen in another.
The total employment in all the shops in the sample
was 25, out of whom eight were employers' and their relatives and 17
paid employees. Two shops were exclusively managed by the
proprietors. Two shops employed two employees together with four
members of employers' families. The other two employed five and six
paid employees respectively. Wages paid to employees varied between
Rs. 20 and Rs. 90. One unit paid Rs. 50 to a baker and the other Rs.
90 to him. The persons employed for making breads was paid between
Rs. 40 and Rs. 45. The average daily working hours were eight.
Business was more or less steady throughout the
year. These establishments in the sample catered the needs of all
classes. The result of our investigation showed that demand for
bread was not stable throughout the year. It was fluctuating from
season to season. It was less in rainy season and more in other
seasons. The methods adopted by these units for baking breads were
very crude. There was an absence of use of modern methods of baking.
Both the factors contributed to a low margin of profit and afforded
little incentive to owners to develop this industry on a large