DR. BALKRISHNA IN HIS SURVEY [Dr. Balkrishna, The
Commercial Survey of the Kolhapur City in 1926,1928, p. I.] IN 1926
RECORDED 19 FLOUR AND RICE MILLS in the city engaging 47 employees.
Of these, one was started during 1901 and 1910, four during 1910 and
1920, and 14 during 1921 and 1926. Fourteen of these mills worked on
electric power and five on oil engines. In 1946, there were 27 flour
mills [N. V. Sovani, Social Survey of the Kolhapur City. Vol. IT.
Industry, Trade and Labour, 1951, pp. 87-8.] in the city, employing
99 persons. Of these, nine were in A ward, seven in C ward, four
each in D and E wards and three in B ward. About half of the mills
worked on oil engines and the remaining half electrical energy.
There were 117 flour mills in 1956. Of these, 37 were located in C
ward, 28 in B ward, 20 in A ward, 18 in E ward and 14 in D ward. The
total employment in these establishments was 361 persons, out of
whom 250 were paid employees and 111 including seven children were
members of employers' families. The sample comprised of six mills of
different sizes. Of these, one was started in 1928, the other in
1934 and four during 1947 and 1951.
The main work done in the mills was grinding of
grains, dehusking of rice and grinding of chillies. The owners of
these establishments were occupied throughout the year in this
The mills were working on electric power and their
main equipment consisted of electric motors, grinders, balances and
other minor tools. The cost of equipment of one establishment was
about Rs. 4,750 and of the other Rs. 4,000, of the third and fourth
Rs. 3,700 and Rs. 3,200 respectively and of the last two Rs. 2,400
and 1600. The yearly repairing charges of equipment in the biggest
establishment in the sample came to about Rs. 450, in the other two,
between Rs. 300 and Rs. 350 and in the remaining three, between Rs.
150 and Rs. 250. The grinding stones had to be replaced frequently.
Three proprietors raised initial capital from their
own resources to start their enterprises. The other three borrowed
the necessary capital, the rate of interest on which was about 9 per
cent. Of the three establishments, two had fully paid the debt by
1956 and the third had still to pay Rs. 500.
Four shops were situated in rented premises, the
rent of each varied from Rs. 15 to Rs. 80 per month and the other
two were situated in owned premises. The other items of expenses on
maintenance of establishment were electric charges, municipal
licence fee, advertisement and other sundry expenses. Each
establishment had to pay Rs. 12 per year as municipal licence fee.
The consumption of electric energy varied from shop to shop. The two
biggest shops consumed electric energy worth Rs. 325 and 275
respectively per month, and the remaining between Rs. 70 and Rs. 150
per month. The total sundry expenses of each varied from Rs. 5 to
All the six owners worked in the mills. Besides
them, seven more workers were engaged in these establishments. All
of them were skilled workers. Workers in two shops were paid Rs. 55
each per month; in the other two, between Rs. 40 and Rs. 54 per
month. In the remaining two no paid-employees were engaged.
The rate usually charged for grinding grains varied
from annas 12 per Bengali maund to annas 15 per maund and for
dehusking rice between annas 4 and annas 9 per Bengali maund. The
two largest concerns in the sample, grinded monthly about 930 maunds
and 800 maunds of grains respectively, and dehusked about 575 and
675 maunds of rice. The remaining four establishments grinded
monthly 330, 300, 260, and 200 maunds of grains respectively and
dehusked 50, 45, 20 and 15 maunds of rice respectively. Two mills
were also engaged in grinding chillies. The rate they charged for
grinding was Rs. 7 per maund. Each was grinding eight and five
maunds per month.
The business in two shops was more or less steady
throughout the year and was brisk in winter and summer and dull in
the remaining four months. It was more or less profitable in the two