KHANAVALIS was another miscellaneous occupation in
the city. At the time of survey there were 31 khanavalis in
Kolhapur city. They were located in C and E wards. About 227 persons
were employed in them, out of whom 40 including four females and
four children were members of owners' families.
Three establishments were surveyed in the sample.
Two were started in 1951 and one in 1955. The principal occupation
of the three proprietors was to run a boarding house, which provided
them employment throughout the year. The establishments were both,
vegetarian and non-vegetarian. They were situated in rented
The total capital invested in each establishment
varied from Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 4,000. The initial investment in one of
them was raised by the owner from his own capital. In the other two,
a part of it was borrowed at 12 per cent, rate of interest and the
remaining amount was raised by the owners from their own resources.
It was found that one of the above two establishments had not repaid
the debt fully.
Equipment in these establishments consisted of
utensils required for cooking and serving dishes and furniture like
tables and chairs. The value of the equipment varied from Rs. 700 to
These establishments spent Rs. 280, 1,098 and 375
respectively on raw materials like food grains, vegetables, mutton,
eggs and fuel. These articles were purchased from the local market.
Other expenses were, rent of the premises, water and electric
charges, municipal licence fee and advertisement. The rent of each
establishment was Rs. 91, 73 and Rs. 56 per month respectively. The
total expenditure per month on other items like water and electric
charges, municipal licence fee and advertisement of the three
establishments was Rs. 85.
The total employment in the three units was 21
persons out of whom three were members of owners' families. The
working hours of these employees were eight per day. These employees
were paid wages as well as served two meals a day. The wages of a
cook varied from Rs. 8 to Rs. 30 per month. In one establishment a
waiter was paid Rs. 8 in the other Rs. 10 and in the third Rs. 20
The total cost of production of each establishment
was Rs. 415, Rs. 655 and Rs. 1,312 per month respectively.
These establishments were providing only boarding
facilities. Regular boarders were provided with two meals a day, one
in the morning and the other in the evening. The number of boarders
each establishment had, was 150, 300, and 600 respectively. These
khanavalis also catered the needs of casual customers, each
serving 400, 480 and 900 casual customers a month. The rate per meal
for a regular boarder was different from that of a casual boarder. A
regular boarder had to pay As. 6 to As. 7 per meal and casual
customer Re. 1 to Rs. 1-4-0 per meal. The number of boarders each
establishment had, depended upon the quality of food served and
cleanliness maintained in the establishment. The number of boarders
was more or less constant throughout the year in the two
establishments, while it was more in summer in the third
establishment. The margin of profit in all the three units was not
much as the net income of each was about Rs. 150 per month.